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User defined rectilinear, circular, or polygon border that defines an area in which all enclosed feature are selected (selection set) for subsequent operations. Typical operations include changing of spatial properties of all features in the selection set or isolation of all linked DBMS records for subsequent query and/or analysis. A fence can also be an open polygon used to select all spatial features that touch or pass through it.

Columnar data item in a DBMS.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  File

In computing, a collection or set of related digital data stored on a computer disk and accessed / retrieved according to an assigned unique name. A collection of related computer records grouped under a common heading and containing data according to specific units.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  Fill

Solid coloring covering an area bounded by linear or curvilinear segments. A solid color rendering of a polygon, sometime referred to as a "solid fill".

Process of removing unwanted components from tabular or spatial data.

  1. In vector spatial database, a variety of smoothing algorithms used to reduce file size by removing excessive turning points along a linear feature.
  2. In raster databases, a mathematically defined operation used in image classification that removes long range (high-pass) or short range (low-pass) variations.

Combination of hardware and software that separates a comunications network into two or more parts for security putposes.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  Font

One of the attributes describing the appearance of linear feature or text string.

  1. For spatial data, a user-defined set of instructions that determine, among other parameters, the appearance of a linear feature including dash and gap lengths, number of parallel lines, line widths, and spacing and description of embedded letters or symbols.
  2. For textural or spatial data, a complete set of text type of one size and typeface in which font designates a set of text characters of a particular style.

The physical structure of an item. The order in which information is prepared and presented.

  1. The arrangement of data for storage or display. A file format is the specific design of how information is organized in a collection or set of related digital data.
  2. To divide (a disk) into marked sectors so that it may store data.
  3. To determine the arrangement of (data) for storage or display.

A geometric pattern that is repeated at ever smaller scales to produce irregular shapes and surfaces that cannot be represented by classical geometry. Fractals are used especially in computer modeling of irregular patterns and structures in nature.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  FTP

Acronym for File Transfer Protocol, a standardized way of transmitting files on the Internet.

Wherein a general class contains constituent classes.

  1. In thematic mapping, boundaries between polygons that contain like attributes are dissolved (i.e. all categories of residential land is generalized under the simpler classification of residential; all categories of sanitary sewers are mapped as a single utility type.
  2. The process of simplifying line work by removing or combining vertices. This can be done manually or automatically.

In spatial databases, a coding process wherein a digital map feature is assigned an attribute to serve as a unique ID (tract number, node number) or classification (soil type, zoning category). In polygon processing, the polygon boundary that contains the coordinate pair of a data item (text label) is assigned the value of that data item as "geocode".

Science or art of measuring the shape and size of the earth's surface, or large parts of it, as distinguished from surveying which deals only with limited tracts of the earth.

Data Model (GDM)Total combination of spatial data structures, symbol libraries, data dictionaries, attribute formats, linked SQL DBMS configurations, menus, icons, dialogs, software executables, and productivity enhancements that together provide an overall framework for building, maintaining and operating an AM/FM or GIS database.

NOTE: The following is not an attempt to provide a single generic definition.

  1. Computerized decision support systems that integrate spatially referenced data. These systems capture, store. retrieve, analyze and display spatial data.
  2. An organized assemblage of computer hardware, software, spatial data and operating instructions designed for capturing, storing, updating, manipulating, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information.
  3. A manual or computer-based system for geographic data input, storage, manipulation, analysis, modeling and output. The system is used to improve geographic question-asking and problem-solving, and to enhance the overall geographic decision-making process.
Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  GNIS

Acronym for Geographic Name Information System.

A method of making menus of materials available on the Internet. A client/server type problem requiring the user to have a Gopher Client progam. Although there are still thousands of Gopher sites on the Internet, it is anticipated that they will be superceded with by Hypertext (See Hypertext).

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  GPS

Accornym for Geograhic Position System, hardware and software designed to communicate with satellites to determine ground location.

Software standard used to establish the menus, screens, dialog boxes, buttons, edit boxes, picklists, toggles, radio buttons, command input, and viewing screens used to communicate instructions to the computer and for the computer to communicate findings back to the user.

Two-way interface between the spatial database (drawing) and the nongraphic DBMS table. Supports instructions sent from the spatial database requesting specific operations to be performed by the supporting DBMS, and instructions sent from the DBMS requesting specific transactions to be performed by the spatial database (i.e. change the color, fill pattern, width or thickness of associated spatial features).

Generally refers to a monochrome ordering of 256 shades between black and white which are assigned to raster picture elements (pixels) according to reflected light, heat, and/or other relative intensity measurements. Most common digital display option for scanned black and white orthophotos.

Map displaying spatial information in the form of color coded, equal sized rectangle, squares, equilateral triangles or hexagons. The color of the cell determined by the condition assigned to the cell according to a uniformly applied rule regarding the condition (i.e. geologic classification):

  • Present in the center of the cell.
  • Makes up the greatest percentage of the cell area compared to the other conditions present,
  • Determined by a scoring system applied to selected spatial overlays. (See Relative Suitability).
Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  GRID

Acronym for Global Resource Information Database, a regular or nearly regular repeating pattern of equally sized geographic areas including squares, rectangles, equilateral triangle, or regular hexagon. Equal sized array of spatial cells arranged in columns and rows.

Point on the surface of the earth with known coordinates as represented by some geographic grid reference system. The location of ground control points can be represented on maps and other cartographic products, and can serve as reference points with which to rectify the scale and accuracy of cartographic products to the actual area on the ground that is represented.



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