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  1. Ability of a computer to reference a specific data set (single record, file, group of files, other) by identifying a specific sector of memory or the disk drive (server) where it is stored for the purpose of editing, assembling, manipulating and/or directing this data set to a peripheral devise.
  2. Portion of the operating system dedicated to locating a body of data and making it available to the user for viewing, analyzing, and/or editing purposes.

Closeness of results of observations, computations, or estimation of spatial features to their true value of position. "Absolute Accuracy" is the differential between the actual real world location of a point on the surface of the earth and its mathematically assigned geographic coordinate.

Process that compares a table of addresses to the address attributes of a theme to convert textual addresses to locations on a map. Street name and address values are compared to DBMS records to find the street segment with a matching name and address range. The address is then located at a prorata distance from the street segments startpoint proportional to the addresses value relative to the street's address range value and on the appropriate side of the street (even addresses always on the right, etc.).

Step-by-step problem-solving procedure, especially an established, recursive computational procedure for solving a problem. Set of ordered procedures, steps, or rules usually applied to mathematical calculations, and assumed to lead to the solution of a problem in a finite number of steps; the logic (and/or formula) that is used to solve a problem. Typical Algorithms possess the following characteristics:

  • Application to a particular problem results in a finite sequence of steps.
  • Unique initial step.- Predicated on the results it derives, each step has a unique successor.
  • Terminates with either the solution or an error message stating that the problem has no solution.

Combination of alphabetic letters, numbers and/or special characters. A mailing address is an alphanumeric listing. The designation ljsdoijwe92393 is an alphanumeric word. Alphabetic characters consist of letters A through Z. Numeric characters consist of the characters 0 through 9... sometimes excludes () and * / \.

Acronym for Automated Mapping/Facility Management, a computer-based Land Information System (LIS). It is used to produce, edit, archive and correlate Automated Map features with nongraphic facility related design or operation attibutes. Primarily applies to systems that support infrastructure operations. Spatial data management system that support the utility and public works operations, maintenance, planning, analysis, and accountability of utility infrastructure systems such as sewer, water, natural gas, telephone and cable networks, electrical, and storm drainage.

In the context of remote sensing and GIS, refers to data in graphical or pictorial form as opposed to digital form. Generally, refers to a quantity which is continuously variable, rather than one which varies only in discrete steps.

Text or labels plotted graphically on a map or drawing. Text labels for naming such map features as streets and places; unique identification numbers assigned to individual map features including parcels, utility nodes and links; dimensioning; posted notes and instructions; descriptive text used to label area features such as soil types, zoning categories. Annotation is typically primitive map features and is not intelligently associated to the map feature and/or possible linked DBMS records.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  ANSI

Acronym for American National Standard Institute that organizes committees of computer users and manufacturers to develop and publish industry standards. ANSI standards are used by US firms as guidelines, although they may be modified.

Use of software, data, procedures and techniques in a series of steps that are then put into practice to solve a problem or perform a function.

  1. Of or being a computer program designed for a specific task or use.
  2. Also referred to as a GIS project.

A combination of spatial data structures, symbol libraries, data dictionaries, attribute formats, linked DBMS configurations, menus, icons, dialogs, software executables, productivity enhancements, tutorials and focused documentation that together provide a total environment for building, maintaining and operating a GIS or AM/FM database.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  Arc

Locus of points that forms a linear feature in a spatial database that is not closed.

  1. A set of XY coordinates used to represent a linear feature or a polygon boundary. It is a continuous string of XY coordinate pairs (vertices) beginning at one location and ending at another location, having length but no area.
  2. A coverage feature class used to represent linear features and polygon boundaries. One linear feature can contain many arcs.
  3. In CAD it is a curvalinear feature defined by such location combinations as
    • Center point, radius, and starting point
    • Center Point, Start and End Point.
    • Start point, end point and one point in between others.

Set of data, processes, and technologies that together make up the physical and communication system supporting information management operations. There are data architectures for the database system. There are software architectures that support the computation, analysis, and processing aspects of the organization. There are technology architectures that support the hardware and network configurations.

Acronym for the "American Standard Code for Information Interchange", a standard way to represent text. Because ASCII text contains no formatting (fonts, underlines or special characters), it can be read by all computers. A convention for using digital data to represent printable characters that provide compatibility for data communications. Used for information interchange between different computer systems. A set of 128 characters used for communication between computers and word processing systems. An ASCII File, also referred to as a text files, is made up of text records each of which contains only letters, numbers, punctuation symbols and control codes.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  ASCM

Acronym for the American Society of Civil Engineers.

  1. Horizontal direction in which a slope faces, or the exposure, commonly expressed in degrees clockwise from north.
  2. Compass direction facing downward in the direction of the steepest slope (maximum rate of decent. For example, if the declination from north of the steepest gradient were 90 degrees, the aspect (or exposure) would be west-facing. Aspect maps display the general orientation of each area of land typically according to eight regimes: N NW W SW S SE E NE.

Transmission of data via serial lines without a specific timing pattern. Transmission of data in which each character is a self-contained unit. Intervals between characters may be uneven.

  1. Single element of nongraphic data assigned to a spatial feature either as an imbedded data element within the spatial database or located in a linked DBMS data record.
  2. Descriptive characteristics of a feature, site or phenomenon.
  3. Location is a mandatory attribute.
  4. Set or collection of datum that describe the characteristics of real-world conditions.

Computer-aided process for creating, editing and manipulating cartographic information. The resulting computer-generated files are a compilation of primitive drafted spatial features.

Software utility that transforms primitive vector boundaries and text labels into polygon data models able to support spatial analysis operations. A second function typically supported is intersecting multiple polygon overlays to formulate composite polygon overlays and linked attribute records describing the combination of conditions present in each newly crated polygon.

Usually measured in bits-per-second, it is another way of stating how much"

  1. Basic representation of a region of the earth as it would appear if viewed from above.
  2. Portrays basic reference information onto which other information of a specialized nature is placed. Usually shows the location and extent of natural earth surface features and permanent man-made objects.
  3. Contains basic digital survey control and topographic elevation reference framework for integrating all of the other map features of a particular geographic area.
  1. Speed at which information can be transferred through a COM (serial) Port. Measured in bits per second. For example, a 28,80000-baud transmission device moves data at a rate of 28,800 bits per second.
  2. Number of signal elements sent over a communication line (modem, printer...) in a single second.
Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  BBS

Acronym for a Bulletin Board System, a computerized meeting and announcement system that allows people to carry on discussions, upload and download files, and make announcements without the people being connected to the computer at the same time.

Image stored as a pattern of dots. A way of storing the digital representation of an image in which bits are referenced (mapped) as rectilinear picture elements (pixels). In color graphics, an individual value is used for each red, green and blue component of a pixel.



Dan Anderson

Dan Anderson

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1230 Main Street
Lewiston, ID 83501

Mailing Address
P.O. Box 896
Lewiston, ID 83501



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