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Spatial features within a spatial database that have no associated attributes or auxiliary information.

Increases the rate at which goods or services are produced especially output per unit of labor. Portion of user interface that simplifies or speeds up routine tasks such as data entry, data editing, spatial data processing, query building and complex analysis steps that would otherwise require numerous keystrokes to initiate.

Mathematical method for representing the shape of the earth on a flat plane; a formula that converts latitude-longitude locations on the earth's spherical surface to X,Y locations on a maps flat surface. A system of intersecting lines, such as the grid of a map, on which part or all of the globe or another spherical surface is represented as a plane surface. The result may have distortion in distance, area, orientation and/or scale. See Conformal, Conic and Cylindrical Projections.

Develop a test model to determine the feasibility of proposed data structures, software, hardware, communications, interfaces, and procedures. Typically involves the assembly of a very small geographic portion of the overall project area but the maximum range of data types and procedures anticipated in the development and operation of the ultimate geographic data model.

  1. Spatial index using regularly varying rectangular cell sizes. The cell area decreases as map feature density increase. Quadtrees are often used for storing raster data.
  2. Data structure for thematic information in a raster database that seeks to minimize data storage.
  3. One of a class of hierarchical data structures that facilitates encoding a grid or raster.

A logical search specification finding spatial features with linked records that contain matching geographic and/or nongraphic attributes. A typical:

  • Spatial query is the comparison of XY coordinates of features/records with a user-defined spatial window (square, rectangle, circle, or multipoint polygon).
  • Logic query is a Boolean argument asking for various combinations of nongraphic attribute assignments.
  1. Images containing individual dots with color values, called cells (or pixels), arranged in a rectangular, evenly spaced array. Aerial photographs and satellite images are examples of raster images used in mapping.
  2. Method for storing spatial data that involves assigning a value to each dot in a large matrix. This method is very useful for modeling continuous phenomena like elevation of temperature.
  1. An assemblage of textural data withen a DBMS table and/or drawn statement as a means of preserving knowledge.
  2. Collected and preserved data describing a particular subject.
  3. A row (series of field values) in a database table. In a spatial database, each graphic feature may be linked to one or more records in one or more tables.
  4. A collection of fields or other sub-portion of computer file treated as a data unit.

A set of techniques for removing data errors though calculation or adjustment. In image processing, computer programs that remove distortion within a digital image, aerial photography or remotely sensed data by removing parallax errors due to relief (high ground being closer to the camera than low lying areas), camera tilt, corner and other distortions.

To establish or demonstrate a connection between two or more things. In spatial analysis, establishing a temporary connection between records in two different tables using an item common to both. An indexing value in a field, both in the core table and the child table, that makes it possible to join the two so that they can operate as one combined table.

Information storage system in which there is an association between two or more things. Organized according to relationships between data items. Collection of tables that are logically associated to each other by shared common attributes. Entering the table name, attribute name, and the value of the primary key, any data element or set of elements can be retrieved. Consists of table rows and columns.

A DBMS query based on a scoring system that generates a relative suitability (multi-variable thematic) map. The technique involves:

  • Assigning raw scores to values within a DBMS field. For example rating a soil type as having a value of 4 on a scale of 10 regarding its development suitability; making the raw score of a parcel's land value equal to its land value.
  • Assigning relative importance values to a DBMS field.
  • Using values in each record to calculate a composite weighted raw score for each field involved.
  • Determining the number and limits of regime ranges.
  • Determining display parameters preparting relative suitability map (i.e. different colored pipes, roadway segments, parcel or intersected polygons as colored PLINEs, solid fills and/or hatch patterns).

Using a recording device not in physical contact with the surface being analyzed including:

  1. Using sensors sensitive to various bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  2. Assessing its spectral image without having the sensor in direct contact with the surface.
  3. Interpreting environmental conditions at, below and above the surface of the earth, typically by processing images from an aircraft (i.e. aerial photography), satellite imaging (ie. SPOT), or radar.

Fineness of detail that can be distinguished in an image, as on a video display terminal.

  1. "Display Resolution" The density of the pixels that compose an image (See Pixels). The greater the number of pixels per square inch of screen, the greater the resolution. In print, resolution is measured in dots per inch (dpi).
  2. "Spatial Resolution" The smallest possible map feature that can be accurately displayed at a specified map scale. For example, in a 1:24000 scale map, a 50 foot distance between a roadway and railroad track centerline is one fortieth of an inch. Since the thinnest pen line width is presumed to be one fortieth of an inch, it is impossible to accurately represent the alignment of these two centerlines and still have a visible gap between them. To do this takes a smaller map scale (< 1:24000).

Reversion of a DBMS record or digital map features to a previously assigned value. Changes made to the database in the last transaction are canceled.

Spatial database editing software that attempts to correct errors by stretching a map to fit known control points or monuments. Mathematical method to stretch or warp images to match existing vector data. Forces a digital map to fit a designated base. To implement, XY values of known coordinates within the survey control network are entered in conjunction with screen selections of the corresponding locations within the map overlay to be rubber sheeted. Each coordinate within the map overlay being processed is moved to the location of the prescribed control coordinate. A deformation (typically least square) algorithm is applied to translate, rotate, and/or rescale all other map features in a manner intended to minimize distortion.

See Image and Image Processing. Land Records Glossary Page 6

  1. Relationship between the dimensions of a feature on a map and the geograhic features they represent on the earth, commonly expressed as a fraction. For example map scale of 1:24000 means that one unit of measure on the map equals 24000 of the same unit on the earth (1 inch would equal 24000 inches = 2000 feet).
  2. A calibrated line, as on a map or an architectural plan, indicating such a proportion.
  3. Description of how length in the real world is related to length on a map. This can be portrayed in a variety of ways including a representational fraction.
  1. In a textural database, organization of relationships within a database system including field names, header descriptions, size and type, and indexing configuations.
  2. In a spatial database, all of the above instructions needed to link attribute records to spatial features as well as other tables.
  3. In general, a set of organizational rules imposed on a body of data to assist in explaining its content and/or guiding response.

Text data actually visible on the display monitor. In nongraphic data, displays of text records, tabulations, and other text documents. In spatial database, text features used to annotate other map features such as road names, node numbers, pipe sizes and town names. In user interface, text visible in side, pull-down, pop-up, dialog and icon menus and picklists.

To cause a spatial display to move vertically or horizontally across the screen so that a new line of text or graphics appears at one edge of the screen for each line that moves off the opposite edge.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  SDTS

Acronym for Spatial Data Transfer Standard for transferring data between multiple geographic data management systems. Includes meta-data that addresses internal spatial reference, completeness, positional and attribute accuracy, logical consistency, completeness and data dictionary.

Multiple scoring systems (See Relative Suitability above) are applied to a data model to generate multiple relative suitability maps, the scoring system for each being based on such "agendas" as:

  • Developers wanting minimum cost and maximum amenity.
  • Local community wanting minimum neighborhood impacts.
  • Environmental lobbies wanting minimum regional impacts.
  • Local governments wanting maximum tax revenues and minimum service obligations/ liabilities. Maps displaying best to worse relative suitability for each scoring system are generated and compared. With enough polygons, some will be allocated to the lowest or highest regime on all of them. Isolation of such areas serves as a starting point for building broad constituency to best-use recommendations.

Digital transmissions in which information is transferred one bit at a time over a single wire or channel. In synchronous communications, blocks or packets of bits contain data are sent according to an established timing sequence. Serial lines are commonly use to connect peripheral devises to computer networks.

Process in which a variety of environmental, cost, and amenity factors are taken into account in attempting to identify which candidate site is the most suitable for the proposed land development or redevelopment. Can be as simple as quantitatively comparing the number of square feet of area that has both good soils and gentle slopes and as sophisticated as performing sensitivity analysis based on multiple agendas and dozens of spatial/environmental factors. (See Relative Suitability, Sensitivity Analysis).



Dan Anderson

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