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  1. Gap between two lines created erroneously by a scanner and its raster-vector software.
  2. Refers to polygons formed when two adjacent polygons do not abut along a single common line resulting in the creation of a very thin polygon being present between the larger two.

Type of terrain analysis in which the change in elevation of the ground over distance is determined. Measured in terms of a ratio of rise or fall within a horizontal distance (run) expressed as decimal, fraction, percentage, or the tangent of the angle of inclination. Slope maps are depicted as a polygon overlay with each polygon geocoded according to the range of slope of the ground within its boundary. (i.e. 0-10%, 10-20%, etc.).

CAD system that has the capability to link spatial elements with relational databases.

Radius used to eliminate gaps (undershoots) and dangles (overshoots) in boundaries as a preparatory step to building polygon topology. A distance parameter defining the maximum gap or dangle that will be adjusted. For example, if a snap radius of 2 is prescribed, all gaps and dangles greater than two model units in size will not be adjusted. Instead there locations will be marked for subsequent editing. Once all gaps and dangles are less than 2 model units, software "snaps" all end points of all contiguous polygon boundary segments to a single locations according to first-point-wins, averaging, and other algorithms.

  1. Methods used to explore the spatial relationships between features both real and theoretical.
  2. Process of extracting or creating new information about a set of geographic features; techniques to determine the distribution of a spatial feature(s); and the relationships between two or more features, the location of, proximity to, and orientation of these features in space.
  3. Study of the locations and shapes of geographic features and the relationships between them.

One of the three kinds of Data (spatial, textural and image). Spatial data is categorized according to the following feature types:

Zero dimensional features: Primitive Points; topological Node.
One dimensional features: Primitive Lines, Strings (multiple nonbranching lines), arcs (mathematically defined curve; topological Links, chains, and rings.
Two dimensional features: Polygons defining enclosed areas, Pixels, and Grid Cells.

Function that allows a user to find, display, and/or isolate attributes records linked to map features located within a defined area of interest - window, circle, polygon or trace.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  SQL

Accronym for Structured Query Language, a computer industry-standard syntax language for querying and manipulating most relational database management systems (DBMS). Commands can be embedded within a programming language to interface to a database or used interactively.

Process whereby, as much as possible, cost of developing engineering-design precision for each spatial feature is distributed over time. Adequate survey control network for the entire project area is a mandatory requirement. Once in place, conversion of map documents into digital format is performed on a best fit basis. The first time that engineering precision is needed, a survey must be prepared that in turn must supercede the survey. Such precision enhancements are postponed, awaiting implementation of the following tasks/projects:

Land Transfer
Land Valuation.

System of X,Y coordinates defined by the USGS for each state. Locations are based on the distance from an origin point defined for each state.

Boundary of a three-dimensional figure. Two-dimensional locus of points located in three-dimensional space. Set of continuous data in which there is an infinite set of values between any two locations. They can be built from regularly or irregularly spaced sample points on the surface.

  1. Graphically defined lattice work of precise control points (monuments) and traverse alignments reconciled to those monuments, serving as a framework for referencing the position of all map features in the spatial database, thereby assuring appropriate precision standards.
  2. Points with a given horizontal position and surface elevation.
  3. Used to determine unknown horizontal positions and elevations of locations elsewhere in the active portion of the spatial database.

Data transmitted along a communication line in a continuous stream via serial or parallel lines according to an established timing sequence. Typically used in high speed local area networks (LANs) and mainframe computer configurations.

  1. Way of organizing information based on connections between member items.
  2. Combination of processes to handle and/or retain data.
  3. Group of related or interdependent equipment components configured to function as a unit.

Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the standard for communication from one Internet computer to another.

Device, often equipped with a keyboard and a video display, through which data or information can enter or leave a computer system.

One of the three kinds of data (spatial, textural and image).

Representation of an area portraying how one or more real features or theoretical concepts are distributed.

  1. Displays a distribution of attributes. Typically a single variable (univariate) map such as soil or land use. Can also depict ranges of calculated values like:
    • Value category (i.e. 10-20% slope)
    • Density (10-20 persons per acre)
    • Relative suitability scores.
  2. Graphic display parameters typically include color assignment, solid fills, hatch patterns, symbols, and other graphic techniques.
  3. Uses information stored in a spreadsheet or database to create map displays for graphic presentations.

A much less stringent standard used to locate graphic feature needed to support multiple applications. (i.e. Land base that supports a management system, land use and/or infrastructure master plans, or environmental impact assessments. A recommended standard in this case would be all control points having an absolute accuracy of 5 feet or better and all referenced points having a relative accuracy of 20 feet or better.

Set of related geographic features, such as streets, parcels, or rivers, and the attributes (characteristics of those features). Geographic features logically organized into groups. Thematic map emphasizing a single environmental aspect such as soils, land cover, or geology.

Acronym for Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing database standard developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census to support the 1990 census.

  1. Supersedes the original DIME file standard that had been applied to only portions of the United States.
  2. Introduces political boundaries, feature names, and ZIP Code boundaries.
  3. Structured for easy implementation of standard address matching algorithems.

Part of a spatial database representing a discrete part of the earth's surface. By splitting (Tiling) a study area into tiles (sub-area facets), considerable savings in access times and improvements in spatial database management performance can be achieved. Needs only to access the data in a single modest sized map file to retrieve requested data (vs. a single very large file). Proceeds to access and retrieve data from other map facets as needed. Tiles are identical rectangular areas and/or arbitrary user determined size or shape, each with an associated spatial database file. Typically remembers which spatial file that a feature was retrieved from for archival purposes. Also uses the tile boundary to determine the storage location of a new feature according to the location of insert or start point.

Data storage technique revolving around breaking up larger spatial areas into smaller areas or tiles. This technique typically speeds up manipulation of spatial databases.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  TIN

Acronym for Triangulate Irregular Network, a representation of a plane surface as a grid of triangular polygons. These models can be built into hierarchical structures, and have a range of algorithms available for their formulation and translation to contour maps and surface grids.

Leeway for variation from a standard. Permissible deviation from a specified value of a structural dimension, often expressed as a percent. Parameter for defining a limiting distance for an operation. For example, a snap tolerance for 2 units apart means that any two endpoints less than 2 units apart will be moved to at a single point location.



Dan Anderson

Dan Anderson

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