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Spatial representation of the surface features of a place or region on a map, indicating their relative positions and elevations.

Relationships between spatial features including such things as continuity, nearness, inside vs. outside, etc. Set of defined relationships between links, nodes, and centroids.

  1. Polygon Topology - representation of areas and area relationships using links and enclosed areas.
  2. Network Topology - representation of a linear network by links and nodes.

System of interconnecting nodes and links that represent intersections of roadways, railroads, transit lines, or other forms of transportation systems. (See Intersection, Network Routing, Spatial Analysis, Utility Tracing).

Situation where a digital line does not meet up with its intended boundary line. The space between the two is called a gap.

A set, every member of which is an element of one or another of two or more given sets.The combination of two spatial data sets where the result includes all of the features of the two inputs.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  UNIX

Industry standard operating system (OS) developed as a joint venture between University of California at Berkeley and the AT&T Bell Laboratories. A multi-user multitasking OS operates on a wide variety of computer systems from micro to mainframe. Written in C, it carries with it C's inherent transportability that enables it to be easily ported to many different hardware platforms. In addition to their own proprietary operating system, many hardware venders offer UNIX as an auxiliary OS further expediting the free flow of data between multiple hardware platforms.

Software components that expedite its intuitive and competent use. Options for command input by computer users rather than typing instructions at the command line. User interface can take on many forms including screen, pull-down and pop-up menus; icons, dialog buttons, toggles and picklists; toolbar buttons; printed tablet menus and cursor buttons on digitizing (mouse) devices. Also includes productivity enhancements, error messages, error trapping, on-line help, MACROS (and their prompts), sample databases, tutorials, manuals, and other documentation. See On-the-fly, Out-of-the-Box.

A network topology particularly well suited for simulating utility operations.

  1. Pressure (Looping) Networks. A non-branching utility network operation driven by position settings assigned to each end of each connecting Link. Typical pressure networks include gas, water and electric utilities.
  2. Gravity (Branching) Networks. Network database in which flow direction within a link is a determinate. All linear features are "drawn" according to their real world direction to better support gravity network simulation transactions. Pertains particularly to sewer, storm, telephone, cable, and some electric utility networks.

A sub-set of a Computer-Aided-Mass-Appraisal System in the Assessor's Office.

Method for storing spatial data involving assigning coordinates for each entity.

  1. Mathematical object with precise direction and length but without specific location. Vector data is stored as XYZ coordinates that describe points, symbols, lines, areas, and volumes.
  2. Method for storing spatial data involving assigning coordinates for each entity; an X,Y,Z for a point, a pair of such points for a line, a series of such lines for a polygon, the method is very useful for modeling discrete physical features.
  3. Quantity, such as velocity, completely specified by a magnitude and a direction.

A read-only stand-alone software system that supports the display, manipulation, and query of spatial databases. Commercial products that enable users reference and analyzed spatial databases prepared by a full function read-write product within the same product line. Typically has a user interface simpler than full function products. Supports rich command set but less than that available in the full function product. Easily programmable to expedite establishment of read-only application.

Analytical technique to determine the area of the earth's surface that can be viewed from a particular vantage point.

Digital spatial database composed of multiple layers of specific area definitions, area boundaries, scale, features, related digital data files, and various other details selected as needed. Stored as a set of descriptive definitions that can be applied to create a map display on a pen plotter or an image on the screen along with nongrahic data and instructions linked to various and classes of map features.

Spatial computing environment that enables users to interface with a spatial database in an intensive manner. Goggles are placed in front of the eyes, each lens of which is a computer screen displaying a view of a shaded 3D spatial model (a building interior, urban plaza, a human knee joint, etc.) from a slightly different point of view. This displacement of viewpoints is equal to that between two human eyes making it possible to perceive the spatial model comparable to the way the real world is viewed. Sensors in the goggles manipulate the model display so that it reflects what is seen as the user turns his head or moves his body. In addition, a glove and/or other devises that respond to movements make it possible for the user to manipulate objects within this virtual reality. Potential and standard practical applications are being implemented in the space program, surgery, and industrial processes.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  WAN

Acronym for a Wide Area Network that typically interconnects mainframe, mini-computers, and PCs providing communications links within areas larger than that served by a Local Area Network (LAN).

  1. Rectangular portion of a larger mapped area selected for display, for example, a rectangle surrounding Colorado and ignoring other areas in a databases covering the Western U.S.
  2. The defined outline of a section of an image which can be viewed simultaneously with other portions of the same or other images.
  3. In spatial queries, a type of boundary for creating a selection set of all spatial features and their linked DBMS records.
  4. A portion of the graphic user interface that enables you to open, close, resize, or relocate a rectangular area on the computer screen that is displaying information other than that being displayed by the spatial database (i.e. DBMS Table, edit, query, report display screens; documents in a word processor, image in a document management system).

Part of the Internet that includes multimedia data. Many www pages include hypertext, which allow you to jump from one homepage to another by clicking on a highlighted word.

Third or height axis of a three dimensional Cartesian coordinate system that crosses the XY axis plane at a 90 degree angle. The Z axis is normally used to represent elevation above sea level.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  Zoom

Computer screen function to enlarge (zoom in) or decrease (zoom out) proportionately the size of the display features shown on the computer screen by rescaling the image. Common term in both CAD and GIS for changing the scale and or extents of a map. For example, "zooming in" shows more detail while "zooming out" shows less detail.

A multiplier value greater than 1.0 that is used to define the vertical exaggeration of a 3D surface. The value is applied to all Z values of the points that make up the surface to make them appear more discernible and interesting.



Dan Anderson

Dan Anderson

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Lewiston, ID 83501

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Lewiston, ID 83501



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