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Aggregation of primitive spatial features grouped together to represent a single spatial feature, typically in the form of a symbol within a spatial database.

U.S. Census Bureau term that refers to a set of U.S. census blocks combined together to provide a small population and housing census area. All selected census Blocks are contained within a single census tract boundary containing an average of population of 800(+/-), about one fourth to one fifth the population of a census tract.

  1. Of or relating to a logical combinatorial system which treats variables such as propositions and computer logic elements, through the operators AND, OR, NOT, IF, THEN, and EXCEPT.
  2. Within multiple sets of polygon feature, operations that produce their union, intersection, complement and exclusion.

Indicates a border or limit. Typically designate the extents of such divergent areas as a school, water, sewer and flood control districts, community planning areas, zoning designations, soil conditions, geologic formations, parcels and easements.

  1. System capability to find a defined feature or set of features in a database.
  2. In regards to the World Wide Web, they also access multiple communication systems including WAIS, Gopher, FTP and telnet.
  1. Area within a specified distance (radius) around a selected map feature(s).
  2. Operation that creates a new entity by tracing around an entity or entities at a constant distance. For example, the buffer around a point is a circle.
Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  CAD

Acronym for Computer Aided Drafting, a computer aided process for interactively creating modifying and manipulating spatial information. Mathematical integrity of the spatial model is adequate to support legal survey and engineering design requirements.

Refers to integrating Geographic Information System technology with that of Computer Aided Design Systems.

Official map records pertaining to location, quantity, value and ownership of land parcels within a government jurisdiction. Polygon overlay of parcel boundaries, each containing a PIN (Parcel ID Number) and linked non-graphic DBMS tables of supporting land tenure and other pertinent information for the primary purpose of taxation. See Multipurpose Cadastre.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  CAE

Acronym for Computer Aided Engineering, software that performs such engineering design functions as structural, stress-strain, grading, pressure distribution, hydrological, load lost, and other analysis.

  1. In vector mapping, the adjustment of the digitizing tablet so that a location on the manual map corresponds to the location of the cursor within the display of the spatial database. To implement, XY values of known coordinates within the survey control network are entered in conjunction with screen selections of the corresponding locations on the map sheet to be digitized.
  2. In remote sensing, these are parameters pertaining to spectral and/or geometric characteristics of a sensor or radiation source.
Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  CAMA

Accronym for Computer Aided Mass Appraisal, a standard for managing Assessors information. The CAMA Interface Direct Query Application (CIDQA) is used to analyze CAMA data.

Point whose location is expressed in terms of its distance above or below an X, a Y and a Z coordinate plane. Location of a point on a plane is expressed by two coordinate values, one representing the distance from the Y axis and the other representing the distance from the X axis.

Science and art of making maps and charts. More broadly, the term includes all the steps necessary to produce a map: planning, aerial photography, drafting, editing, color separation, and multicolored printing. With regard to computerized spatial databases, a cartospatial feature is a point, line, arcs, string, chain, polygons, symbol, text or other form of spatial entity. Functionality of cartographic information systems is limited to encoding, displaying and measuring cartospatial features.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  Cell

Basic element of spatial information in a grid data set.

  1. A cell map is generally made up of a spatial grid of rectilinear spatial units (sometimes square) of same size and shape, each depicting a condition assigned to all areas within the cell relative to a selected measurement. Such values are typically stored in a linked attribute table.
  2. The location of a single value in a database defined by intersecting a row or record with a field or column.

Official, usually periodic, enumeration of a population, often including the collection of related demographic information. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts a census of the U.S. Population every ten years and publishes detailed descriptions of subgroups within the overall population for a variety of purposes. The U.S. Census Bureau organizes this data according the following hierarchy of designated census areas.

Census Tract: subarea of a county or city containing an average of approximately 4000 inhabitants that have statistically comparable population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.

Block Group: Subset of a Census Tract containing a population of approximately 800.

Census Block: Subset of a Block Group, the smallest geographic area for which census data is collected.

Linear feature representing the midpoint along a linear element like a road or stream.

Any point used to label the location of a feature in a spatial database (polygon, line or point).The geometric center of polygon; may be calculated as the average location of all vertices of a polygon boundary. Any single location within a polygon, arithmetically derived or not, to which attribute information about that polygon area is linked. Midpoint of a line to which attribute information about that line is linked.

A consecutive sequence of alphanumeric characters (i.e. ABC,def,123) used together as a single unit for purposes of display or analysis.

  1. Data that are devoid of errors.
  2. Process for identifying and correcting potential errors in digital map line work. For example, closed polygon areas made up of boundary segments wherein the location of the end point of one segment is identical with the start point of the next segment.
  3. In other words, line work free of gaps and dangles.
  1. Communications between computers. The client computer is typically a desktop microcomputer device using a software program to contact and obtatin data from a server computer. The server is typically a minicomputer, workstation, or mainframe computer integrated over a network. However, the server can be a micro-computer linked to multiple storage devices.
  2. In context with the Internet, the client is any computer that can access an Internet service. For example, there are Gopher clients and telnet clients. The server is a central computer from which a particular service takes place. For example, there are FTP servers and Gopher servers.
Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  COGO

Acronym for Coordinate Geometry, COGO is a subsystem of CAD or GIS made up of a set of standard procedures for processing survey data such as bearings, distances and angles to generate precise spatial representation of land features and survey control networks.

To make permanent any changes to the database implemented during the current transaction.

Program for translating instructions written in a high-level computer language into machine instructions.

Overlaying and combining data types from two or more map overlays to create a map displaying:

  1. Combination of these characteristics.
  2. Combination of information from different thematic maps.
  3. Map containing the combined characteristics of multiple overlapping spatial data layers.


Dan Anderson

Dan Anderson

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