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Computer-aided process for creating, modifying and manipulating spatial information. Typical operations are interactive wherein a user either requests immediate results in the creation of new spatial features or modification of existing spatial features. The mathematical integrity of the spatial model is adequate to support legal survey and engineering design requirements.

Arrange (strings of characters) into a chained list. For example, the text strings.

To meld or fuse two or more components into one whole. With regard to GIS, to merge two or more spatial data sets into one.

A projection wherein the scale is the same in every direction at any point. Meridians and parallels intersect at right angles; the shape of small areas and angles with very short sides are preserved. Most area values are distorted.

A projection in which the surface is drawn as it would appear if projected on a cone wrapped around the Earth. A Lambert projection is a form of Conic projection often used for maps of the continental United States, France, and other countries.

Topological property of lines and nodes being linked or attached to each other, typically pertaining to infrastructure networks such as utility and transportation systems.

Treats the entire service territory as one large map and hence one large file. More complex than tiled mapping systems because of the need to reference the entire database in order to act on any one part of it.See Tiled Mapping Systems.

Display of contour lines, each of which represents a constant value, typically elevation, throughout its length. Also called an Isoline map, it displays linear features that connect all points having the same numeric value (i.e. elevation, rainfall, noise, concentration level).

Translating manually displayed spatial information (drawing maps and diagrams) into digital spatial databases.

Procedure used to identify the extents of corridors of land area containing candidate routes for such linear transportation features as highways, pipelines, and electric transmission. Land use / environmental data overlays are prepared for the areas within the selected corridors which are subsequently used to determine explicit and relative measurements for comparing alternative routes and assessing the selected route in terms of construction cost, environmental impact, and operational effectiveness.

Environmental data overlay that defines the surface of the earth in terms of vegetation type in non developed areas (i.e., forest, rowcrops, orchards, grasslands) and land use type in developed areas (residential, transportation, vacant, light industrial). Land cover map overlays can be derived from interpretation and classification of remotely sensed images.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  CPU

Acronym for Central Processing Unit. The portion of a computer which directs and supervises all of its functions (screen, printer, disks....) and controls the interpretation and execution of instructions assigned by a program called theoperating system (OS).

Name for a whole range of information resources available though computer networks. Originated by William Gibson in his novel.

Projection in which a surface is drawn as it would appear if projected on a cylinder wrapped around the earth. "Mercador Projection" is a form of cylindrical projection in which the surface is drawn as it would appear if projected on a cylinder wrapped around the earth in a north south direction.

A column or item in a database. Individual data item within a row or record. The logical equivalent of a database column. Another term for domain or column. Specified area within a record for placing a particular category of data.

A picture of the flows of data through a business activity or automated system that illustrates the external agents, internal processing, and data communication.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  Data

General term for information including facts, measurements, classifications or value representations from which conclusions can be inferred. Things known about real-world entities; results of observations or measurements of such features. A single datum has three potential components:

  1. "Attributes", attributes describing the substance characteristics variables, values, and similar qualities of the datum.
  2. "Geographic", information describing the position of the datum in space relative to other data.
  3. "Temporal", information describing the instant or period of time for which the datum is valid.

Structure of a database. In spatial data management systems, refers to both the spatial and tabular parts. A collection of interrelated data sets stored together and controlled by a specific schema for efficient management of information. A consistent and specified set of procedures is used in building, maintaining, accessing, and interrogating information from a database.

An acronym for Database Management System, a computer-based system or application software that enables users to build and maintain a non-spatial database. The DBMS performs a variety of data access, edit, query and reporting operations. DBMS can also refer to the collection of software required to use and manipulate a tabular databases to present multiple different views of the data.

  1. Point, line or surface used as a reference for a measurement of another quantity. Point, line, or surface used as a reference (i.e., surveying, mapping, or geology).
  2. Combination of parameters and control points used to accurately define the three dimensional shape of the Earth (spheroid). For example, the North American Datum for 1983 (NAD83) is the basis for map projections and coordinates within the United States and throughout North America.

In the context of spatial databases, a record in a data table external to the spatial database that contains attribute information corresponding to a specific map feature.

Focuses on complex decision making situations and the problems most often faced by an organization+s decision makers. A computerized process designed to provide decision makers what they need to know when they need to know it including pertinent up-to-date maps, tables, graphs, photos, histograms and charts to make the most informed decision possible.DefaultAn automatically designated value, setting, or an action automatically taken, unless otherwise specified. Values or parameter settings defined by the software vendor or the system user that are applied automatically during data entry, editing, and/or analysis operations unless changed by the user. For example, a default snap radius is set at 5 model units unless the current polygon processing transaction requires a different one to be applied. For data models there can be default symbol libraries, file and attribute naming conventions, DBMS configurations, interface links, and spatial database formatting schemes.

Data Characteristics of human populations, such as size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics. Sociologic/ Economic data concerning the human environment.

Symbols produced randomly in polygons or grid cells with each symbol representing a numerical count (i.e. ten households, one gas station).

Anything in computer readable format usually stored on magnetic tape or disk.Spatial or attribute data stored in electronic format, digital units, on a hard drive.Discrete numerical representation of information vs. analog representation.



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