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Digital cartographic representation of a terrain surface or a subsurface feature as defined by a series of three dimensional coordinate values. A digital representation of a continuous variable over a two dimensional surface by a regular array of Z values referenced to a common datum.

Process of tracing hard copy documents on a tablet to capture line work in digital form. The process of converting existing data from paper maps, aerial photos, or raster images into digital form by tracing the maps on a digitizer. Feature locations are encoded as X,Y coordinates.

Acronym for Dual Independent Map Encoding, a data format used by the U.S. Census Bureau to encode street network and related data for the 1980 Census. See TIGER for details.

Removing boundaries between adjacent polygons having the same value for a specific attribute. Combining polygons that would otherwise be assigned the same color or hatch pattern in a thematic map display. Process of aggregating neighboring polygons based on a matching value for some attribute.

Processing System of computers connected together by a communications network. In true distributed processing, each computer system is chosen to handle its local workload while the network supports the system as a whole.

May be a textural report, spreadsheet, picture, or spatial database stored as a file in the computer. Typically, a document is a file containing plane ASCII text. It is a file created within an application, for example, a letter created in a word processor or a graph created in a spreadsheet or graphics program.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  DOS

Acronym for Disk Operating System developed for IBM by Microsoft Corporation that has become a de factor standard Microcomputer operating system. A system program that allows transfer of programs and data back and forth from the computer processor and the disk drive.

Display of selected two-dimensional data on a perspective view of certain relief or any other spatially distributed variable. For example a map of a road network may be draped over a perspective view of a 3D terrain surface.

Digital CAD equivalent of a hard copy document. Some systems refer to them as designs or design files. A collection of graphical features stored as a set of spatial information in a computer.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  DTM

Acronym for Digital Terrain Model, a representation of terrain relief in a computer readable format. Also referred to as a Digital Elevation Model.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  DXF

Acronym for Data Exchange Format, a standard spatial data exchange format for CAD systems. DXF files contain ASCII or binary (DXB) records each of which describes a vector complete enough so that it can be converted into a spatial feature by any spatial database management product able to process these files.

Functionality for modeling linear features in a transportation or other network related applications. Process of dynamically locating events along linear features straight from attribute tables in which attributes are recorded according to distance from a start point. The ability to translate data collection in linear (milepost) measures into:

Posted point and symbol features adjacent to an alignment representing incidents or facilities.

Break points along an alignment wherein each resulting route segment has a unique set of assigned physical and/or operational attributes.

Within a State Plane coordinate system, Easting is the equivalent of the longitude and Northing is the equivalent of the latitude of a location described in terms of distance from an origin point defined for each project or state.

Map cleanup function that allows for distortion between adjacent maps to produce a true match of features at the edges of maps. The result is a continuous map by ensuring that all features that cross theboundary between two adjacent maps appear to be or are a single feature.

Detection of errors in text records or spatial database features and the implementation of the needed correction. Corrections can include additions, deletions, and rearrangements, as well as changing size, font, style, color, orientation, alignment, scale, and rotation. Editing techniques exclusive to spatial features include changing elevation, thickness, width, attribute assignments, surface textures, dimensioning and others.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  EIS

Acronym for an Executive Information System, a read-only information system or extension of a larger information system designed for upper level managers and decision makers to view and interrogate data but not make any changes.

Acronym for Electronic Mail, messages sent from one person to one or many persons via computer.

Extremely precise standard that is mandatory for a variety of applications. An example is the land base used to provide positional reference for capital improvement project contract drawings. The geographic location of a map feature displayed on these drawings should meet the accuracy standards required by local ordinance. Given an established Survey Control Network grid of one mile or denser, a recommended standard could be all control points having an absolute accuracy of 1 foot or better and all referenced points having a relative accuracy of 2 feet or better.

  1. Single feature in a spatial database such as a line or circle. In some systems entities are referred to as elements.
  2. Geographic feature that exists and is distinguishable in the real world. For example a land parcel, road, building, manhole, or pole.For the purposes of this glossary, the term feature is used interchangeably with entity.

A local area network originally developed by Xerox DEC and Intel that interconnects personal computers via coaxial cable. A type of computer network established using coaxial cable twisted pair cable or fiber optic cable. It has a network protocol defining the physical and data link layers of the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model. (See OSI).

Computer system using rule-based logic to simulate human intelligence. Performs tasks that require a high level of knowledge of certain subjects and extensive specialized training. Involves parallel processing hardware and software technology that utilizes combinatorial mathematics. Together, search engines, able to perform the logical inferences needed to automatically expand the domain of the system+s knowledge base, are developed. Confronted with a question, expert systems are able to ask more questions to acquire the additional information needed for a competent answer.

In conjunction with Automated Mapping, the record keeping of information concerning spatially distributed assets or facilities. Typically used for asset accountability and maintenance management operations. There is no spatial component. If a spatial component is added so that records in a Facility Management system are linked to features in an Automated Mapping System, the combination is referred to as an AM/FM system.

Maps of specific components of urban infrastructure such as a water main, street pavement, telephone pole, or street light. Within a spatial database system, facility maps are typically encoded as series of individual layers in conjunction with the land base.

Method for preventing a second user from editing a feature while the original user is performing an edit. Locking prevents writing on a feature by others while a feature or record is currently "checked out" for modification. When a transaction is started, the selected feature, and in some cases the linked attribute record, is designated as locked in such a manner that no other user can write on the feature until it is released (the lock designation is removed).

Natural and man-made Geographic features represented by points/symbols, lines, and areas on a map. Object in a geographic or spatial database with a distinct set of characteristics. A defined aspect of the earth's surface that is not further subdivided. For example, a road segment, manhole, building, or area designated having the same soil type.



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