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Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  Map

Representation, usually on a plane surface, of a region of the earth or heavens. Within a spatial database, an assembly of digital spatial features that represent a set of real-world features and the geographic relationships between them. This representation may exits digitally, manually (i.e. on paper), or in the human mind.

Mathematics used in conjunction with creating maps, measuring map features, defining map accuracy, or other mapping functions that require quantification.

A feature in a file or record used to locate a specific point or condition.

  1. Rectangular array of numeric or algebraic quantities subject to mathematical operations.
  2. Something resembling such an array, as in the regular formation of elements into columns and rows.
  3. Network of intersections between input and output leads in a computer, functioning as an encoder or a decoder.
  1. Unit of a computer that preserves data for retrieval.
  2. Capacity for storing and remembering information for subsequent reference.
  3. An organized set of locations in which a computer can store and find data instructions. Such capacity stored in Random Access Memory microchips (RAM) is referred to as virtual memory.
Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  Menu

Options for command input by computer users rather than typing instructions at the command line. Menus come in many forms including permanent screen menu squares, pull-downs, popups, sliders, icons, cursor, picklists, dialog and toolbar buttons, as well as printed tablet menus and cursor buttons on digitizing (mouse) devices.

  1. Combine items from two or more similarly ordered sets into one set that is arranged in the same order.
  2. Splice separate but adjacent mapped areas into a single data set.
  3. Annotate spatial features with attribute values retrieved from selected fields within linked DBMS records. Typically users can control the size, angle, style, color, font, and offset of these posted labels.

Data about data. This often includes the data's source, accuracy, data type, projection, date of origination and other general descriptions.

Very small computer, such as a laptop or personal computer, built around a microprocessor as its CPU and designed to be used by one person at a time; smaller than a minicomputer.

A medium sized computer, usually fitting within a single cabinet, serving the needs of multiple users within a small organizational unit. Has more memory and a higher execution speed than a microcomputer. Also referred to as a workstation or midrange.

Acronym for Millions of Instructions Per Second, a CPU related performance measurement.

  1. Applying structured rules and procedures to one or more spatial database overlays to conduct spatial and/or network analysis to derive new information to aid in problem solving and planning.
  2. Schematic description of a system, theory, or phenomenon that accounts for its known or inferred properties and may be used for further study of its operational characteristics.
  3. Process of simulation, prediction and description involving changing the parameters and generating/communicating new model results. Using spatial or network overlays to simulating a process to predict outcomes to what-if scenarios.

Abbreviation for MODulator and DEModulator, a device that converts data from one form into another.

  1. From one form usable in data processing to another form usable in telephonic transmission.
  2. Send and receive information over communication lines between computers, usually over telephone lines.

Public Domain World Wide Web browser with graphic capabilities (gif but not jpeg) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana - Champagn and available for general use at no charge.

Combined use of several media types, such as video, computer graphics, animation, movies, slides, music, and lighting especially for the purpose of education or entertainment. Integrating multiple technologies on a single platform with a single user interface.

Comprehensive land information system at the parcel level. Land base includes all parcel boundaries, right-of-ways, and easements with each parcel typically linked to supporting attribute records. Other components typically include highly precise survey control network and other information overlays addressing a wide range of natural and cultural characteristic as well as supporting infrastructure systems. See Land Information System.

Specialized queries that reference connected linear and node features.

  1. Typical analytical transactions within Transportation Networks:
    • Modifying direction and/or impedance along links and through intersections.
    • Identifying the optimal path as measured between two or more points according to a selected terms of measurement.
    • Highlighting all components (nodes and links) of the optimal path, referred to as "routing".
  2. Typical analytical transactions within Utility Networks:
    • Modifying direction and ON/OFF position settings of links relative to nodes.
    • Isolating all network nodes and links both physically and logically connected to a selected test point.
    • Highlighting all logically connected network features, referred to a "Network Tracing". Attribute records linked to highlighted features can be subsequently isolated to perform design analysis.
  3. Two types of utility networks:
    • Pressure Networks. Typical transactions include resetting valves to redirect service operations or reset switches to reconfigure circuits. Typically applies to water, gas, steam, electric and telephone systems.
    • Gravity Networks. Typical transactions include isolating all nodes and links upstream or downstream from a test point. Can include isolating a portion of the network by changing position settings of links relative to their upstream or downstream nodes to OFF. Typically applies to sewer, storm, telephone, and sometimes electric utilities.
  4. Typical analysis performed using records linked to highlighted features in a route or trace include load loss, traffic demand and capacity, pressure loss, maximum flow, gradient, asset management and other engineering analysis.

Characteristic of a network topology that enables users to perform network analysis functions. See Network Analysis, Network Link, Network Node, Transportation Network, Utility Network.

A straight or multi-vertex linear feature that connects any two end points (nodes) in a manner that is determined by the topology type being addressed as follows:

  1. Polygon - a polygon edge.
  2. Utility Network - a linear unit in a connected series of nodes and linear units, typically including attributes regarding its own (from-to) ID, the ID of the Node at each of its ends, and the position setting at each its end (ON or OFF) relative to the Node at each of its ends.
  3. Transportation Network - a linear unit in a connected series of node and linear units. Typically includes linked attributes regarding its own ID, flow direction, and impedance (length, friction coefficients, maximum speed, and others).

End point of a link represented by a point or symbol. Characteristics of a node is determined by the tolology to which they are a component part.

  1. Polygon topology - The intersection of two or more polygon segments.
  2. Utility Network - contains list of all links connected to it which are typically assigned as attributes.
  3. Transportation network is a list of all connected links as well as node impedance factors such as traffic control devises and turning constraints which are typically assigned as attributes.
  4. Communications and/or computer network, a single terminal.See Transportation and Utility Networks.

In transportation networks, this refers to highlighting all node and link features along the optimal path between a starting point and one or more destinations, either in terms of least distance, travel time, or other prescribed performance criteria. See Transportation Networks, Network Connectivity, and Network Analysis.

In utility networks, this refers to highlighting all node and link features within a gravity of pressure network that are both physically and logically connected to a test point within the network according to a specified set of rules. See Utility Network, Network Analysis, Network Link, and Network Node.

Set of tabular data records, each record containing multiple data fields. In the context of spatial databases, one of these fields is the Unique ID Number of a corresponding map feature.

Click here to expand contentClick here to collapse content  NSDI

Acronym for National Spatial Data Infrastructure. See National Academy of Science.



Dan Anderson

Dan Anderson

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Lewiston, ID 83501



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